Tool for thermal and light optimization of solar protection by genetic algorithms
Thesis supervisor : Hassan Ait Hadou.
2017 – Montpellier, France
Solar protection is a recurrent recourse for architects in the design of sustainable architecture. It plays a major role in the comfort of users while also having an aesthetic function. It allows, in particular, to control solar radiation and thus avoid overheating of the building, in summer, as well as the overuse of energy necessary for its cooling. The rest of the year, it must allow a sufficient solar contribution in order to reduce the heating needs. And of course, it must guarantee sufficient light throughout the year. The solar protection must therefore be precisely adjusted in order to be useful and efficient. Moreover, as a façade element participating in the expressiveness of the building, it leaves a certain margin of creativity to the architect.
We propose to work with generic forms on the climatic optimization of this double skin, in order to guarantee a formal freedom to the designer. For this, we will rely on “computational” optimization methods with genetic algorithms adapted to deal with this kind of problem, as well as on simplified climatic models applied to the building, efficient and fast in their computational resolution, using the Radiance calculation engine. The whole will be operable on parametric geometries using the graphical algorithmic editor Grasshopper. A case study of a solar mask of a non-standard shape will be presented in the last part. This study will lead to the creation of a tool accessible to architects.